Limited Monarch – A government in which the monarchy does not have absolute power, but shares it with a parliament.
Absolute Monarch – Rulers who have complete authority over the lives of the people they govern.
Divine Right – The belief that a king’s authority to rule comes directly from God.
Louis XIV – (The Sun King) The king of France from A.D.1643-1715, and the best example of an absolute monarch, he ravaged the country with debt, and started it on the road to revolution.
Palace of Versailles – A palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV of France; it showed the opulence of the French King. It came to represent the disconnect of the King from his people, and helped lead to the downfall of Louis XVI.
The French Revolution – Revolution in France that led to the overthrow of the French king Louis XVI, and eventually to his execution.
Nationalism – 19th century viewpoint that urged the importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on ethnic origins.
The Reign of Terror – Period during the Revolution when thousands of men, women, and children were put to death on the guillotine.
Robespierre – French leader during, and the mastermind of the Reign of Terror in France.
Louis XVI – Bourbon king of France who was executed, along with his queen Marie Antoinette, during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
Napoleon – Military leader and dictator who ended the Revolution and conquered most of Europe in the name of France.
Battle of Trafalgar – Naval battle that took place off the coast of Spain in A.D. 1805, at which the British fleet defeated Napoleon’s French fleet, ending his hopes of invading England.
Horatio Nelson – Great British naval leader, who won, and died, at the Battle of Trafalgar.
Battle of Austerlitz – Napoleon’s greatest victory, his brilliant tactics gave him a victory against a bigger force, and control of most of Europe.
The Hundred Days – Occurring in A.D. 1814, Napoleon returned to France from the island of Elba where he had been exiled, in an attempt that ultimately failed to reconstruct his empire.
Battle of Waterloo – Fought in A.D. 1815 it was the final battle of the Napoleonic Wars where a combined force of British and Prussians defeated the French forces of Napoleon, who was finally exiled to the island of St. Helena where he died.
Duke of Wellington – British military leader who defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo.
Congress of Vienna – European leaders restored order, and mapped out new boundaries, for the countries of Europe after the fall of Napoleon.