Feudalism – A system of rule by local lords who were bound to a king by ties of loyalty. The people lived under a rigid class system (see page 296 in the book).
Manor – A village and the lands around it that was controlled by the local lord.
Serfs – The lowest class in a feudal society often tied to the land they lived on and the lord that owned it.
Chivalry – Code of conduct during the Middle Ages that dictated a knight’s behavior.
Carolingians – Line of Frankish kings descended from Charles Martel (The Hammer) who reunited and restored order too much of what had been the Roman Empire.
Charlemagne – Greatest of the Carolingian rulers, he became the first Holy Roman Emperor in A.D. 800 when he was crowned by the Pope.
Vikings – Seafaring people from Scandinavia who raided much of Western Europe in the A.D. 800’s and 900’s. They were known for their violence and brutality, and are thought to be the first Europeans to reach the Americas around A.D. 1000.
William the Conqueror – The Duke of Normandy who invaded and conquered England establishing the line of Norman Kings.
Battle of Hastings – Battle fought in A.D. 1066 when William the Conqueror overthrew the Anglo-Saxon Kings of England.
Magna Carta – The “Great Charter” signed by King John in A.D. 1215, it guaranteed the nobles certain rights that the king could not take away.
Parliament – English assembly made up of the House of Lords and the House of Commons that is meant to represent the people of England.